The Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation provides critical perspectives on topics relevant to Information Systems Evaluation, with an emphasis on the organisational and management implications
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Journal Article

Organizational Challenges and Barriers to Implementing IT Governance in a Hospital  pp37-45

Luis Velez Lapao

© Jan 2011 Volume 14 Issue 1, ECIME 2010 Special Issue, Editor: Miguel de Castro Neto, pp1 - 166

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Abstract

This paper describes the challenges and barriers to the introduction of “IT Governance” into a Hospital environment. It further addresses the relationship between corporate governance (hospital strategy and organization) and the role of IT Governance in managing new services deployment. Both ITIL and COBIT are introduced as a best practice for supporting Hospital Information Systems (HIS) management. IT Governance is an extensive framework; therefore we focused our study on ITIL Assessment combined with COBIT. The assessments were centered on IT Service Management, which, according to our findings, is being carried inefficiently in Hospital São Sebastião (HSS). We used both COBIT and ITIL assessment to audit and identify IT Governance weakness. These processes revealed a way to assist the organization at becoming aware about IT improvement priorities. The results were used to rethink HIS strategy in order to properly address the need to develop new health services like ambulatory surgery and connecting with out‑patients services. We used the IT Governance standard ISO/IEC 38500 to provide guiding principles for the effective use of IT according to Calder‑Moir framework. Starting with a COBIT assessment we identified IT management priorities and metrics, then we focused on the ITIL assessment steps. Finally, we applied the framework on both Service Desk and Incident Management processes. We analyzed the level of IT governance maturity and produce some recommendations to improve IT Service Management practices. The ITIL assessment identified existing gaps between the current organization practices and how the organization should perform according to ITIL, and what key actions need to be taken to close those gaps. At the end disclosed that IT Governance inefficiency is an important barrier to HIS management, mostly in IT service management which has a direct impact in users' daily work flow, and therefore on Healthcare services delivery.

 

Keywords: IT Governance, hospital information systems, IT organization, COBIT, ITIL

 

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Journal Article

Literature Review of Information Technology Adoption Models at Firm Level  pp110-121

Tiago Oliveira, Maria Fraga Martins

© Jan 2011 Volume 14 Issue 1, ECIME 2010 Special Issue, Editor: Miguel de Castro Neto, pp1 - 166

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Abstract

Today, information technology (IT) is universally regarded as an essential tool in enhancing the competitiveness of the economy of a country. There is consensus that IT has significant effects on the productivity of firms. These effects will only be realized if, and when, IT are widely spread and used. It is essential to understand the determinants of IT adoption. Consequently it is necessary to know the theoretical models. There are few reviews in the literature about the comparison of IT adoption models at the individual level, and to the best of our knowledge there are even fewer at the firm level. This review will fill this gap. In this study, we review theories for adoption models at the firm level used in information systems literature and discuss two prominent models: diffusion on innovation (DOI) theory, and the technology, organization, and environment (TOE) framework. The DOI found that individual characteristics, internal characteristics of organizational structure, and external characteristics of the organization are important antecedents to organizational innovativeness. The TOE framework identifies three aspects of an enterprise's context that influence the process by which it adopts and implements a technological innovation: technological context, organizational context, and environmental context. We made a thorough analysis of the TOE framework, analysing the studies that used only this theory and the studies that combine the TOE framework with other theories such as: DOI, institutional theory, and the Iacovou, Benbasat, and Dexter model. The institutional theory helps us to understand the factors that influence the adoption of interorganizational systems (IOSs); it postulates that mimetic, coercive, and normative institutional pressures existing in an institutionalized environment may influence the organization’s predisposition toward an IT‑based interorganizational system. The Iacovou, Benbasat, and Dexter model, analyses IOSs characteristics that influence firms to adopt IT innovations. It is based on three contexts: perceived benefits, organizational readiness, and external pressure. The analysis of these models takes into account the empirical literature, and the difference between independent and dependent variables. The paper also makes recommendations for future research.

 

Keywords: information technology, diffusion of innovations, DOI, theory, technology-organization-environment, TOE, framework, interorganizational systems, IOSs, institutional theory

 

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Journal Article

Editorial  pp1-2

Shaun Pather Editorial

© Mar 2016 Volume 19 Issue 1, Editor: Shaun Pather, pp1 - 82

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Abstract

Abstract: The issue of businesses understanding cloud adoptionŽ exists, despite the diverse academic research on cloud adoption. The various approaches (business and technical), theories (Technology‑Organization‑Environment, Transaction cost theory, R esource based view) have resulted in a fragmented and piece‑meal approach to understanding cloud adoption. The purpose of this article is to review and consolidate the diverse literature on cloud adoption. This can help organizations decide their cloud r eadiness and understand the business implications from multiple perspectives. The paper begins with a focused review of existing literature on cloud adoption. The articles in the literature are then systematically classified on various parameters such as the perspective used (business versus technical), the dominant theory used and the adoption factors that are identified. Two existing frameworks are also critiqued to highlight their strengths and limitations. Finally, a short check list based on the c umulative findings is prepared. The review reveals common themes in terms of examining cloud adoption. It shows that cloud adoption has been primarily examined from the innovative technology perspective using the Technology‑Organization‑Environment framew ork. The two other dominant approaches that come up include the economic/cost perspective driven by transaction cost theory and the use of multi‑criteria decision framework. The article contributes by reviewing and consolidating the diverse literature on the topic of cloud adoption. The study organizes the recurrent themes in the reviewed articles in terms four important areas. Within each area, the study also provides some commonly asked questions that could help organizations understand their readiness to adopt cloud. This way, the article integrates different perspectives and provides organizations with a simple, holistic check list to examine business implications of moving to cloud.

 

Keywords: Keywords: Cloud computing, technology adoption, diffusion of innovation, technology-organization-environment, transaction cost theory, cloud readiness

 

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Journal Article

Cloud Adoption Decisions: Benefitting from an Integrated Perspective  pp3-21

Deepa Ray

© Mar 2016 Volume 19 Issue 1, Editor: Shaun Pather, pp1 - 82

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Abstract

Abstract: The issue of businesses understanding cloud adoptionŽ exists, despite the diverse academic research on cloud adoption. The various approaches (business and technical), theories (Technology‑Organization‑Environment, Transaction cost theory, R esource based view) have resulted in a fragmented and piece‑meal approach to understanding cloud adoption. The purpose of this article is to review and consolidate the diverse literature on cloud adoption. This can help organizations decide their cloud r eadiness and understand the business implications from multiple perspectives. The paper begins with a focused review of existing literature on cloud adoption. The articles in the literature are then systematically classified on various parameters such as the perspective used (business versus technical), the dominant theory used and the adoption factors that are identified. Two existing frameworks are also critiqued to highlight their strengths and limitations. Finally, a short check list based on the c umulative findings is prepared. The review reveals common themes in terms of examining cloud adoption. It shows that cloud adoption has been primarily examined from the innovative technology perspective using the Technology‑Organization‑Environment framew ork. The two other dominant approaches that come up include the economic/cost perspective driven by transaction cost theory and the use of multi‑criteria decision framework. The article contributes by reviewing and consolidating the diverse literature on the topic of cloud adoption. The study organizes the recurrent themes in the reviewed articles in terms four important areas. Within each area, the study also provides some commonly asked questions that could help organizations understand their readiness to adopt cloud. This way, the article integrates different perspectives and provides organizations with a simple, holistic check list to examine business implications of moving to cloud.

 

Keywords: Keywords: Cloud computing, technology adoption, diffusion of innovation, technology-organization-environment, transaction cost theory, cloud readiness

 

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Journal Article

E‑Supply Chain Coordination and SME Performance: An Empirical Investigation  pp76-84

Dr Rui Bi

© Nov 2017 Volume 20 Issue 2, Editor: Shaun Pather, pp59 - 147

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Abstract

This study investigates the impact of key antecedents from technology‑organization‑environment contexts on developing e‑supply chain coordination capability in the small‑to‑medium enterprise (SME) context. Using data from 271 SMEs in Australia, we find that e‑supply chain coordination is driven by IT infrastructure, business partnerships, and customer power. In addition, SMEs with strong e‑supply chain coordination capability can achieve outstanding business performance. This study provides an empirical evidence to understand the relationships between these antecedents, e‑supply chain coordination capability, and SME performance. These findings suggest that e‑business practice is one of key factors that contribute to SME success. SME managers should understand how to utilize internal and external resources to develop e‑business competences in order to achieve business goals.

 

Keywords: E-Supply Chain Coordination, SME Performance, Technology-Organization-Environment Framework, Resource-based View of the Firms

 

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Journal Article

Important Issues for Evaluating Inter‑Organizational Data Integration Configurations  pp127-138

Frank G. Goethals

© Nov 2008 Volume 11 Issue 3, Editor: Dan Remenyi, pp109 - 212

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Abstract

Partnering companies can share data via various configurations. Typically problems become evident as partnering companies seek to exchange data. These problems take a different form for different data integration configurations and are thus of great relevance when evaluating different configurations. This paper identifies issues to be taken into account when evaluating inter‑organizational data integration configurations. Eight problems are discussed: difficulties to identify which information flows to automate; to relate different viewpoints on boundary objects; to agree on data formats; to distribute investments among the parties; to deliver appropriate service levels; to preserve the value of the data sharing; to clarify data ownership and to do all of this in the frame of changing relationships. For several problems it is illustrated how they surface in a completely centralized and in a completely decentralized inter‑ organizational data‑integration scenario.

 

Keywords: business-to-business integration, inter-organizational data integration problems, boundary objects, service levels, data ownership, data functionality

 

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Journal Article

Firms Patterns of e‑Business Adoption: Evidence for the European Union‑27  pp47-56

Tiago Oliveira, Maria Fraga Martins

© Jan 2010 Volume 13 Issue 1, ECIME 2009, Editor: Elizabeth Frisk and Kerstin Grunden, pp1 - 96

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Abstract

Research has shown that firms using e‑business achieve considerable returns through efficiency improvements, inventory reduction, sales increase, customer relationship enhancement, new market penetration, and ultimately financial returns. However, there is little systematic research in terms of e‑business adoption patterns in firms across countries and industries. This study addresses the research gap by analysing the pattern of e‑business adoption by firms across European Union (EU) members. For that, we used the survey data from 6,964 businesses in EU27 members (excluding Malta and Bulgaria). The choice of variables that we will use in our study is based on the technology‑organization‑environment (TOE) theory. In the TOE framework, three aspects may possibly influence e‑business adoption: technological context (technology readiness and technology integration), organizational context (firm size, expected benefits and barriers of e‑business and improved products or services or internal processes) and environmental context (internet penetration and competitive pressure). We performed a factor analysis (FA) of multi‑item indicators to evaluate the validity and to reduce the number of variables. We used the principal component technique with varimax rotation to extract four eigen‑value, which were all greater than one. The first four factors explain 72.4% of variance contained in the data. The four factors found are: expected benefits and obstacles of e‑business, internet penetration, technology readiness and technology integration. These factors are in accordance with the literature review. Afterwards, we performed a cluster analysis (CA) using variables obtained from the FA and the other variables were gathered directly (firm size, employees education, improved products or services or internal processes and competitive pressure) from the e‑Business W@tch survey. In the CA we used hierarchical and non hierarchical methods. We obtained four distinct groups of e‑business adoption. The pattern of these groups suggested that in the European context the most important factor to characterize e‑business adoption is the specific characteristics of the industry and is not the country to which the firms belong.

 

Keywords: e-business adoption, information and communication technology, ICT, technology-organizational-environment, TOE, framework, cluster analysis, CA, European Union, EU, members

 

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Journal Article

The SIGLIC System for Improving the Access to Surgery in Portugal  pp160-166

Pedro Gomes, Luis Velez Lapao

© Jan 2011 Volume 14 Issue 1, ECIME 2010 Special Issue, Editor: Miguel de Castro Neto, pp1 - 166

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Abstract

This paper describes the design and first results of an information system (SIGLIC) that supports the new integrated management program (SIGA) to improve the access to surgery in Portugal. SIGIC, the Ministry of Health’s agency responsible for access to surgery management, started re‑thinking the system in 2005 by re‑defining key processes and workflows. The designed information system SIGLIC integrates all hospitals with surgery with every other hospital, where it picks the data to allow the search for optimal solutions for each patient. In the context of SIGIC (Waiting List for Surgery's Integrated Management System) “access” means to assure the treatment by services in terms of quality, standards, equity, process and transparency. The existence of a significant number of patients waiting for treatment that exceed the clinical acceptable times has ominous consequences not only for the individuals (increasing suffering, reduce treatment success, more complex treatments) but also for the society (more expensive use of resources, higher absenteeism, etc), which made the government to create SIGIC program. SIGIC's goals are to reduce waiting time for surgery, to apply identical standards to all patients, to profit from good use of resources and, to create a national structure of homogeneous information based in a system of data collection. The methodology followed was to: a) “survey of information systems and technology in Demand/Supply/Resources”; b) “institutionalization and monitoring of procedural standards for management of the Waiting List for Surgery (WLS)”, c) provide “evaluation by results” and, d) “Correction of deviations to the standard”. To fulfill SIGIC’s objectives it was created a management model (SIGA) and SIGLIC to support it. By now 57 public hospitals and 96 private clinics and hospitals (with convention in SIGIC) had joined the SIGIC network. The Information model include the following items: information on patients and events to allow “Process management”, “clinical information” for “Disease Management” and “financial data” to allow management between the health units, from which data is gathered to improve access management. The information is recorded by hospitals in accordance with a set of standards and integrated into the central database of SIGIC. The quality of integrated information from the hospitals is guaranteed by a set of tools to validate its consistency, rejecting non‑compliant data. The information is recorded in hospitals throughout the process of managing the patient on WLS and integrated daily in the central database. The results since 2005 show the importance of an integrated information system to overcome the bureaucracy: There was a 36% improvement in number of scheduled surgical episodes and 60% reduction in days on waiting time.

 

Keywords: waiting list for surgery, information systems, organizational processes, health information management

 

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